Management evaluates financial performance in part based on non-GAAP financial measures, including adjusted earnings and adjusted diluted EPS. These items represent income from continuing operations attributable to Duke Energy, adjusted for the dollar and per share impact of special items. As discussed below, special items include certain charges and credits, which management believes are not indicative of Duke Energy's ongoing performance. Management believes the presentation of adjusted earnings and adjusted diluted EPS provides useful information to investors, as it provides them with an additional relevant comparison of Duke Energy’s performance across periods.
Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures for planning and forecasting, and for reporting financial results to the Duke Energy Board of Directors (Board of Directors), employees, stockholders, analysts and investors. Adjusted diluted EPS is also used as a basis for employee incentive bonuses. The most directly comparable GAAP measures for adjusted earnings and adjusted diluted EPS are Net Income Attributable to Duke Energy Corporation (GAAP Reported Earnings) and Diluted EPS Attributable to Duke Energy Corporation common stockholders (GAAP Reported EPS), respectively.
Special items included in the periods presented include the following, which management believes do not reflect ongoing costs:
Adjusted earnings also include the operating results of the nonregulated Midwest generation business and Duke Energy Retail Sales (collectively, the Midwest Generation Disposal Group) and the International Disposal Group, which have been classified as discontinued operations. Management believes inclusion of the operating results of the Disposal Groups within adjusted earnings and adjusted diluted EPS results in a better reflection of Duke Energy's financial performance during the period.
Duke Energy’s adjusted earnings and adjusted diluted EPS may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of another company because other companies may not calculate the measures in the same manner.
The following table presents a reconciliation of adjusted earnings and adjusted diluted EPS to the most directly comparable GAAP measures.