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Supply and Energy Efficiency Options

Supply and Energy Efficiency Options

This table summarizes our current view of supply and energy efficiency options to meet customer needs from the standpoint of key sustainability criteria. We believe a diversified portfolio helps us meet our customers' electricity needs in a sustainable way.

Note: Ratings for affordable, reliable, clean and jobs potential are based on plant footprint, internal knowledge and our experience in our service areas. External resources, where available, are cited below.

Type|Purpose Affordable2 Reliable Clean Jobs Potential4
CO2 Emissions2
Water Required3 Waste Produced Land Required

Cleaner Coal

Supercritical Pulverized, with Advanced Emissions Controls|Baseload1
High capital but low operating cost
           
Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) | Baseload
High capital but low operating cost
 
Potential for CO2 sequestration
       

Nuclear

Baseload
High capital but low operating cost
     
Very small volume; recycling possible
 
Many jobs over a sustained period

Natural Gas

Simple-Cycle Combustion Turbine | Peaking1
Low capital but high operating cost; volatile fuel cost
 
Moderate CO2 emissions
       
Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbine | Intermediate2
Low capital but high operating cost; volatile fuel cost
 
Moderate CO2 emissions
       

Renewables

Solar - Photovoltaic | Intermittent3
Very high capital but low operating cost
If sunlight is available
     
May use rooftops
Mainly during development and construction
Wind | Intermittent
High capital but low operating cost
If wind is available
     
Co-use possible
 
Hydro | Peaking and Energy Storage
High capital but low operating cost
If water is available
 
Large flows; negligible consumption
     
Biomass | Baseload
High capital but low operating cost
           

Energy Efficiency

Demand Response | Peaking
Low cost at low contribution; high cost at high contribution
Dependent on customer participation
         
Conservation | Baseload
Low cost at low contribution; high cost at high contribution
Dependent on customer participation
         

 

Legend

1 Power plants serve the following purposes:

  • Baseload - large power plants that operate continuously at near full load (except for maintenance)
  • Peaking - power plants that operate for short periods to meet spikes in demand
  • Intermediate - power plants that operate between the extremes of baseload and peaking electric demand
  • Intermittent - power plants that are dependent on natural resource availability (sunlight, wind)

2 See Program on Technology Innovation: Integrated Generation Technology Options. EPRI, Palo Alto, Calif.: 2009. 1019539.

3 See Thirsty Energy: Water and Energy in the 21st Century. World Economic Forum, in partnership with Cambridge Energy Research Asssociates. February 2009.

4 Includes development, construction, operations and maintenance jobs. See Task Force on America's Future Energy Jobs. National Commission on Energy Policy. October 2009.